101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach For Driving Innovation In Your Organization

13 de julho de 2015
 |  Coordenação Sustentação DEIOP

O livro “101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach For Driving Innovation In Your Organization“, de autoria do professor Vijay Kumar, foi reconhecido pela Amazon Books como um dos “Best Books of The Year So Far”. 

Vijay Kumar é professor do Instituto de Design do Illinois Institute of Technology e nesse livro desenvolve uma metodologia de promoção da inovação considerada como “primeiro guia passo-a-passo para o planejamento de uma inovação de sucesso” nas organizações.

Conforme a Amazon Books, “ao contrário de outros livros sobre o assunto, “101 Design Methods: A Structured Approach For Driving Innovation In Your Organization” aborda a prática da criação de novos produtos, serviços e experiências do cliente como uma ciência, em vez de uma arte, proporcionando um conjunto prático de ferramentas e métodos para o planejamento colaborativo e a definição de novos serviços/produtos bem sucedidos“.

Dado o reconhecimento do conteúdo, segue resumo do modelo e dos sete modos do processo de planejamento da inovação identificados pelo Prof. Vijay Kumar e disponíveis no endereço

O modelo analítico-sintético proposto (conforme diagrama a seguir) é composto por quatro quadrantes, a saber, “Research, Analysis, Synthesis e Realization”; por quatro eixos, “Real World, Understanding, Abstracting e Making”; e pelos sete modos do processo de inovação, que podem ser adotados de forma linear (em sequência numérica e helicoidal, e passando por todos os eixos e quadrantes) ou de forma não-linear e interativa.

Seven Modes of the Design Innovation Process & 101 Design Methods:
There are seven distinct
modes of the innovation planning process: Sense Intent, Know Context,
Know People, Frame Insights, Explore Concepts, Frame Solutions, and
Realize Offerings. Each mode has its own goals and activities. “101
Design Methods: A Structured Approach for Driving Innovation in Your
Organization” introduces each of these modes as a separate chapter
with a set of methods.
Early on in the process
we are in this mode of figuring out where to start. Before jumping
straight into a project we take a pause and consider the changing
world around us. We look at all the changes happening in business,
technology, society, culture, policy, and others. We gather the
latest happenings, cutting edge developments, and latest news. We
study the trends that can affect our topic area. We look at the
overall effects of these changes. All these offer us a way to reframe
our initial problem and look for new innovation opportunities. It
helps us think of an initial intent about where we should be moving.
In “Know Context”
we study the context — the circumstances or events that affect the
environment in which our innovation offerings (products, services,
experiences, brands etc.) exist or could exist. We study how our
offerings perform in the market. We focus on offerings that are
similar to ours and see how they perform. We study our organization.
We look at all the competitors and their evolving strategies. We
learn about our organization’s relationship to our complementors in
the industry. We find out if government policies and regulations have
an effect on our innovation topic. Broadly, in this mode, we pay
attention to what is transforming our innovation context including
society, environment, industry, technology, business, culture,
politics, and economics.
In this mode our goal is
to understand people (end-users and other stakeholders) and their
interactions with everything during their daily lives. In this mode
traditional market research techniques are most useful when a new
offering is already defined. But to explore a person’s unmet or
unspoken needs we must have more powerful methods and tools. We use
observational and ethnographic research methods to learn about people
in ways that are different from interviews or focus group studies. A
key objective in this mode is to extract the most valuable insights
from our observations. An “insight” here is defined as an
interesting revelation or learning that emerges out of observing
people’s actual behavior. Insight is an interpretation of what is
observed, and is often the result of asking the question “why?”
After conducting
research, the next step is to bring structure to what has been found
and learned from the previous modes. We sort, cluster, and organize
the data gathered in the previous three modes and begin to find
important patterns. We analyze contextual data and view patterns that
point to untapped market opportunities or niches. Finding insights
and patterns that repeatedly emerge from multiple analyses of data is
beneficial. Therefore in this mode we use a mix of different kinds of
methods in order to gain multiple perspective of the context for a
fuller understanding. Guidelines or principles that are generated in
this mode help us move to the modes for exploring concepts and
framing solutions.
In this mode we do
structured brainstorming to identify opportunities and to explore new
concepts. We use the insights and principles framed earlier as the
starting places to generate concepts. We ensure that fresh and bold
ideas are generated through collaborative sessions. Team members
build on each other’s concepts while carefully postponing critical
evaluation. Further, by basing our concepts on the results from
previous modes, we ensure that the concepts are defensible and
grounded in reality. Concepts for products, services, communications,
environments, brands, business models, and others are typically
explored in this mode. Even at this early stage of exploration, we
construct rough prototypes, either to focus team discussions or to
get early user or client feedback.
In this mode, we build on
the large set of concepts that have been developed earlier by
combining them to form systems of concepts, named “Solutions”.
We evaluate concepts and identify the ones that bring the most value
to stakeholders (primarily users and businesses). The most valuable
concepts are combined into systems of concepts that work together
well and reinforce each other’s value. We also evaluate concepts
based on their compatibilities to help form holistic solutions. We
ensure that the concepts and solutions are organized into useful
categories and hierarchies. We iteratively prototype solutions, and
test them in reality. In this mode descriptions of solutions are
turned into depictions to give the team, the users and the client(s)
a visceral sense of “what could be.”
Once potential solutions
are framed and prototypes tested, they need to be evaluated to move
to implementation. In this mode, we ensure that the solutions are
purposefully built around people’s experiences and can provide real
value. It is also important to make sure these solutions add economic
value for the organizations producing them. Once we establish
high-value solutions, implementation plans follow. For this, design
and business innovators collaborate to define viable strategic
directions. We create roadmaps to show the speculated progression of
solutions in distinct phases. These roadmaps are shared with the
stakeholders, showing everyone involved the steps necessary to
implement the solution. A business case is prepared for prompting
further action with clearly defined and specific initiatives the
organization will follow to facilitate implementation.

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